What makes alloyed titanium grade5 so difficult to machine?

Titanium alloy has the advantages of low density, high strength ratio (strength/density), good corrosion resistance, heat resistance, toughness and plasticity, etc. It is widely used in many fields such as aerospace, automobile, medicine, sports goods and electrolysis industry. However, its poor thermal conductivity, high hardness, low modulus of elasticity and other characteristics make titanium alloys become more difficult to process metal materials. Gr.5(Ti6AI-4V ) is the most commonly used titanium alloy grades. Today we will analyze why gr5 is difficult to machine.

 

  1. Low thermal conductivity

Grade 5 titanium alloy at 200 ℃ heat conductivity l = 16.8 W/m?℃, the coefficient of thermal conductivity is 0.036 ℃ / cm, is only a quarter of the steel, aluminum, 1/13 of 1/25 of the copper. Heat in the process of cutting of titanium alloy will not quickly be passed to the workpiece or taken away by chip, and agglomeration in cutting area, the temperature can be as high as 1 000 ℃ above, make the cutter blade quickly wear, split, produce more heat and the cutting area, further shorten the tool life. The high temperature in the cutting process destroys the surface integrity of the titanium alloy parts at the same time, which leads to the decrease of the geometrical precision of the parts and the machining hardening phenomenon which seriously reduces their fatigue strength.

  1. Low elastic modulus

The surface of the machined parts has great resilience, which leads to the increase of the contact area between the machined surface and the cutter surface, which not only affects the dimensional accuracy of the parts but also reduces the tool durability. The elasticity of titanium alloy may be beneficial to the performance of parts, but in the cutting process, the elastic deformation of the workpiece is an important cause of vibration. Cutting pressure causes the “elastic” workpiece to leave the tool and rebound, thus making the friction between the tool and the workpiece greater than the cutting effect. Friction process also produces heat, aggravating the poor thermal conductivity of titanium alloys. This problem is more serious when machining thin-walled or annular parts, which are easily deformed. It is not easy to process titanium alloy thin-walled parts to the expected dimensional accuracy. Because as the workpiece material is pushed by the tool, the local deformation of the thin wall has exceeded the elastic range and plastic deformation, cutting point material strength and hardness increased significantly. At this point, machining at the previously determined cutting speed becomes too high, further resulting in sharp tool wear.

  1. High hardness

When some titanium alloys with low hardness value are processed, the viscosity increases and the chip sticks to the cutting edge of the cutter to form a chip tumor, which affects the processing effect. The hardness of titanium alloy such as Grade5 titanium alloy machining is easy to make the tool edge collapse and abrasion. These characteristics result in a low metal removal rate of titanium alloy, which is only 1/4 of that of steel pieces while the processing time is much longer than that of steel pieces of the same size.

  1. Strong chemical affinity

Titanium can not only react with the main components in the air such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide and other substances, forming TiC and TiN hardened layer on the surface of the alloy, but also react with the tool material under the high-temperature conditions generated by cutting, which reduces the tool durability.

  1. Poor safety performance in the cutting process

Titanium is a flammable metal. The high temperature and spark are extremely flammable and if ignited, are almost impossible to put out during the micro-cutting.

 

Compared with most other metal materials, titanium alloys have higher processing requirements and more restrictions. Satisfactory machining results for titanium alloys can also be obtained if the proper cutting tools are used and the machine tools and configurations are optimized to the best condition according to the machining requirements.

The commonly used materials of metal bellows

Metallic bellows are wave-shaped tubes, also known as expansion or expansion joints. Metal bellows are elastic pipes that can be compressed or extended when pressure is applied to the outside of the pipe. When the pressure released and the material has not been stressed past its yield strength, the bellows will return to its original shape. The metal bellows are mainly used for non-concentric axial transmission with small bending radius, irregular turning, expansion or absorption of thermal deformation of pipes, etc., which is not convenient to connect pipes with pipes or connect pipes with equipment in the installation of fixed elbows.

Due to its excellent performance, it is widely used in automatic control and measuring instruments, vacuum technology, mechanical industry, electric power industry, transportation and atomic energy industry and other fields such as sensitive components, shock absorption components, non-concentric axial drive components, compensation components, sealing components, valve components and pipeline connections. Metal bellows should be selected according to the application and performance of different metal materials. The Common materials of metal bellows are carbon steel, copper, stainless steel, steel lined plastic, aluminum, titanium and so on. Today, lkalloy will discuss with you the common materials of metal bellows in details:

 

Copper alloy

Tin bronze C51900 ~ 0.1 X – 60 ℃ ~ + 100 ℃ metal bellows tube combined excellent flexibility and strength, has a good brazing and corrosion resistant performance. Hysteresis and elastic aftereffect are small and widely used as measuring elements.

Brass Bellows C24000 H – 60 ℃ ~ + 100 ℃ with low elasticity, large hysteresis and aftereffect, brazing sex is good.Can be used for non-corrosive media and precision is not high in the instrument as a measuring element.

Beryllium bronze Bellows C17510 P – 60 ℃ ~ + 150 ℃, nonmagnetic, have a very small hysteresis and elastic aftereffect, high flexibility, corrosion resistance, used for high precision measuring instrument.

 

Stainless steel

Bellows SUS321 G – 194 ℃ ~ + 400 ℃ has the very high bending fatigue strength and corrosion resistance, good welding performance, can be used as a measure of corrosive medium, sealing, connection and compensating element. Common brands are 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 317L, 310S, 321, etc. There are more special, high corrosion resistant of 6Mo special stainless steel (super stainless steel) such as 254SMO, 904L, N08367 or N08926. Duplex stainless steel offers high strength but poor elongation, it’s not recommended for small bellows, large bellows processing can be considered according to the technical conditions.

 

Nickel-based alloy

High corrosion and high-temperature conditions should take into account the resistance to chloride ions, sea water, acid, alkali corrosion and high temperature resistant alloy materials, such as high nickel alloy, nickel ferrochrome alloys such as Incoloy 800H, Incoloy 825, Inconel 625, Monel400 and alloy c-276.

 

Titanium

Generally, it is pure titanium Gr.1. It has high elongation while poor welding performance, which should be taken into consideration.

 

 

What are the effects of alloying elements on Nickel-based steel?

The Nickel retains its austenitic cubic structure until it reaches the melting point, which provides freedom for ductile-brittle transition and greatly reduces manufacturing problems caused by the presence of other metals. Nickel is more inert than iron and more active than copper, so the order of corrosion resistance in reducing environment is Copper > Nickel > Iron. The addition of chromium on the basis of nickel provides the alloy with antioxidant properties, which can produce a wide range of alloys with the best resistance to both reducing and oxidizing environments.

For a certain nickel-based alloy, there are a variety of changes in the specific environment such as concentration, temperature, ventilation, liquid (gas) flow velocity, impurities, abrasion, cycle process conditions, etc., which will produce a variety of corrosion problems. These questions can be answered in nickel and other alloying elements.

Nickel-based alloys can hold more alloying elements in the solid solution state while maintaining good metallurgical stability compared with stainless steel and other Fe-based alloys. These factors allow the addition of a wide variety of alloying elements, making nickel-based alloys widely used in a wide variety of corrosive environments. The common elements in Nickel-based alloys are:

Ni

Nickel provides metallurgical stability, improves thermal stability and weldability, increases corrosion resistance to reducing acids and caustic soda, and in particular increases stress corrosion cracking resistance in chloride and caustic soda environments.

Cr

Chromium improves the properties of oxidation resistance, high-temperature oxidation resistance, vulcanization resistance, high pitting resistance and gap corrosion resistance.

Mo

Molybdenum improves the corrosion resistance of reducing acid, the resistance to pitting corrosion, gap corrosion and high-temperature strength under the environment of chloride aqueous solution.

Fe

Iron improves resistance to high temperature carburizing environment, reduces alloy cost and controls thermal expansion.

Cu

Copper improves corrosion resistance to reducing acids (especially sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid, which are used in airless applications) and salts. The addition of copper to nickel-chromium-molybdenum-ferroalloys helps to improve corrosion resistance to hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid.

Al

Aluminum improves high-temperature oxidation resistance and aging hardening.

Ti

The combination of titanium and carbon reduces the intergranular corrosion caused by chromium carbide precipitation during heat treatment and improves the aging strengthening.

Nb

The combination of Niobium and carbon reduces intercrystalline corrosion caused by chromium carbide precipitation during heat treatment and improves pitting corrosion resistance, clearance corrosion performance and high-temperature strength.

W

Tungsten improves the resistance to reducing acid and local corrosion as well as its strength and weldability.

N

Nitrogen improves metallurgical stability, pitting corrosion resistance, gap corrosion resistance and strength.

Co

Cobalt provides enhanced high temperature strength, carbonation resistance, and vulcanization resistance.

 

Many of these alloying elements can be combined with nickel over a wide range of compositions to form single-phase solid solutions, ensuring excellent corrosion resistance of the alloys under many corrosive conditions. The alloy also has good mechanical properties under complete annealing without worrying about harmful metallurgical changes during manufacturing or hot working. Many high Nickel alloys can be strengthened by solid solution hardening, carbide precipitation, precipitation (aging) hardening and dispersion hardening.

Which alloy material is most resistant to caustic soda?

Caustic alkali generally refers to caustic soda and caustic potassium, namely sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Caustic embrittlement or caustic cracking occurs when the alloy material cracks under the action of tensile stress and corrosion medium in alkaline solution. In alkaline solutions, the concentration of hydrogen ions is usually low and the corrosion rate in chemical media usually decreases with the increase of PH value. At certain PH values, the corrosion rate of some metals hovers around the lowest value, while the PH value increases continuously as the corrosion degree increases.

Caustic soda has a wide range of applications. It can be used in papermaking, textile printing and dyeing, alumina, daily chemical, pharmaceutical, water treatment, steel and other industries. Caustic corrosion occurs when metals come into contact with caustic soda. Caustic corrosion can lead to pitting and other localized corrosion, as they tend to form cathode films that concentrate corrosion in susceptible anode areas. Austenitic stainless steels and other low Nickel materials may experience stress corrosion cracking or general corrosion in hot caustic soda.

Nickel and its alloys offer excellent alkali corrosion resistance for high temperature and concentration environments. Generally, the corrosion resistance of caustic soda usually increases with the increase of nickel content. In alkaline media, the most commonly used nickel alloys are Nickel 200/201, Monel 400, Nickel 600 and 625.

Plant tests in 23% caustic soda in tank receiving liquor from evaporator. average temperature,104℃
MaterialCorrosion rate,mpy(mm/a)
Nickel 2000.16(0.004)
Monel alloy 4000.20(0.005)
Inconel alloy 6000.17(0.004)

Factory and laboratory test results, some of which are shown in the table below, show that nickel 200/201 and high nickel alloys are very satisfactory for the treatment of these materials

Laboratory corrosion tests in evaporation of caustic soda from 73-96 %, with and without chlorate
MaterialsCorrosion rate, mpy(mm/a)
Without chlorate with 0.30%Chlorate
Nickel 2001.5(0.038)260(6.60)
Inconel alloy 6002.2(0.056)380(9.65)

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Anti-corrosiont nickel based alloy Hastelloy C22 VS C276

Hastelloy alloy has good resistance to pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. It was well tolerated for a variety of corrosive medium in oxidation and reduction environments, even as high temperature up to 677 ℃; Hastelloy c-22 and c-276 are the only materials that can resist the corrosion of wet chlorine gas, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide solution, and offering significant corrosion resistance to high concentration of chloride solution (such as iron chloride and copper chloride).

Hastelloy c-22 and c-276 have excellent welding performance and have been widely used in chemical and petrochemical fields, such as components in contact with chlorinated organics and catalytic systems. They are especially suitable for high temperature, mixed with impurities of inorganic acids and organic acids (such as formic acid and acetic acid), seawater corrosion environment.

The specification difference from different counties is as follows:

ChineseGB/T 15007-2008NS3308NS334
AmericanASTM B462-2006

ASTM B574-2006

ASTM B575-2006

N06022N10276
Special MetalsINCONEL® alloy 22INCONEL® alloy 276
Haynes InternationalHASTELLOY® C-22®HASTELLOY® C-276®
JapaneseJIS H 4551:2000NW6022NW 0276
Nippon YakinNAS NW22NAS NW276
GermanDIN 17744:2002NiCr21Mo14W

2.4602

NiMo16Cr15W

2.4819

VDM MetalsVDM® Alloy 22

Nicrofer® 5621 hMoW

VDM® Alloy 276

 

The chemical composition (%)difference is as follows:

GradeNiCMoCrFeWCoMnV
C22560.011322332.50.50.35
C276570.011616542.510.35

We can learn that from the table above, there are few differences in the term of chemical analysis except the content of Mo and Cr. Alloy 22 has a higher Chromium and Molybdenum content than C276, demonstrating improved corrosion resistance in oxidizing aqueous media when high levels of chloride ions are present. In addition, the other differences are:

  1. Welding material:Varestraint hot-cracking tests performed on commercial alloys revealed a weldability ranking as follows: C-22 > C-276. Intermetallic secondary solidification constituents have been found associated with weld metal hot cracks in Alloys C-276 and C-22(gas-tungsten-arc welds). In Alloy C-276, this constituent is a combination of P and ώ phases, and in Alloy C-22, this constituent is composed of σ, P, and ώ C276 welding materials are wire ernicrmo-4 and electrode enicrmo-4; C22 welding material is wire ERnicrmo-10, electrode Enicrmo-10.
  2. C22 offers better and more comprehensive corrosion resistance compared with common nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys such as C-276, C-4 and 625. C22 can be considered as an upgraded version of C276.
  3. Hastelloy c-22 alloy has a density of 8.7g/cm3, less than that of C276 alloy (8.9). However, C22 is more expensive because the manufacturing cost of C22 is higher than that of C276.

Each alloy has been manufactured to provide a unique set of benefits, wherever it is applied. Both commonly used corrosion resistant alloy. Hastelloy C22 and C276Hastelloy C22 and C276 generally, replace each other in most cases. C276 is more versatile and the C22 offers better performance.

The welding of SAF 2507 steel for nuclear power plants

Most nuclear power plants in the world use sea water as its cooling medium. Seawater is the most corrosive medium in the natural environment which are prone to produce pitting for common stainless steel materials. How to obtain welded joints with good seawater corrosion resistance is very important. Super duplex stainless steel SAF2507 offers good pitting resistance, is used in cooling pipes for most modern nuclear power plants.

SS2328 (00Cr25Ni7Mo4N) steel is a type of super duplex stainless steel developed in Sweden in recent years with a commercial brand SAF2507(UNSS32750), which belongs to the third generation of duplex stainless steel. Mainly used in harsh media, especially the chlorine-containing environment, such as sea water. The balanced composition of high chromium, high molybdenum and high nitrogen makes the steel offering high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, pitting and crevice. Here we will introduce the welding of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel, please keep reading on.

 

Welding methods

Due to its limited metallurgical properties of duplex stainless steel, the following principles should be followed when selecting welding methods:

  1. Avoid using too high or too low welding heat input. Too low heat input will greatly reduce the austenite precipitate, leading to the process and performance reduction. However, too high heat input will result in the precipitation of harmful phase and coarse grain in the welded joint which produces the reduction of corrosion resistance and toughness.
  2. Suitable for multi-layer welding: multi-times, low melting rate.TIG welding is chosen as the ideal welding method according to the practical site construction. The table below is the welding parameters recommended by Sandvik of Sweden.
Gradeheat input/KJ mmInterpass temperature/ ℃
SAF25070.2 —1.5<150

Welding material

Due to the thermal cycle of welding, the ferrite of the weld metal increases sharply during the self-fusion welding of duplex stainless steel, and the precipitation of nitride and secondary Austenite at the same time, leading to the decrease of toughness and corrosion resistance. In order to restrain the increase of ferrite in weld metal, austenite-dominated weld metal is the ideal choice for duplex stainless steel welding. Its advantages are: grain refinement, reduction of nitride precipitation, improvement of plastic toughness and wear resistance, enhancement of crack resistance and reduction of inhomogeneity of upper and lower layers in multi-layer welding.

It is feasible and useful to increase the content of nickel or nitrogen while decreasing the Cr in welding materials. The content of nickel in the filler material is usually 2%- 4% higher than its base material. The filling material containing nitrogen is better than which containing nickel only. Both elements can increase the proportion of austenite phase and use stable, but nitrogen addition can not only delay the precipitation of intermetallic phase, but also improve the strength and corrosion resistance of welding metal.

At present, the resistant filler materials are generally added with the same nitrogen content as the base material on the basis of improving nickel, so as to ensure the austenite content of the weld is 60% to 70%. The sandvik25.10.4.l wire was used for TIG welding of SAF2507 steel. The typical chemical composition is shown below:

GradeCSiMnS maxP maxCrNiMoN
Sandvik25.10.4.L0.020.30.40.020.020251040.25

 

It is shown that 20%N2 in pure Ar gas is lost in surface-weld bead during TIG welding of super duplex steel. The addition of nitrogen to the shielding gas effectively avoids the loss of nitrogen, because too much nitrogen will make the weld metal produce porosity. In general. When SAF2507 steel was welded by TIG, Sandvik25.10.4 was selected.L wire shielding gas Ar +2% N2 was used to obtain the welded joints with good corrosion resistance to seawater.

The common material for hardfacing weld

Hardfacing weld(build-up welding or overlaying) is a surface welding process that uses flame, arc and plasma arc to melt base metal to form a wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant and heat-resistant coatings on the surface of the workpiece. Hardfacing has characterized the function of repairing and surface strengthening. With the wide application of wear-resistant materials in industry, hardfacing has become an important surfacing technology to solve the failure of metal parts lead by  abrasion.
Composition and structure of surfacing material have an important influence on the performance of the whole component. According to the composition of hardface welding metal and the structure of surfacing layer, hardfacing alloys can be classified as iron-based, nickel-based, cobalt-based, copper-based and tungsten carbide and so on.

Iron-based alloys
Iron-based alloys are the most widely used hardfacing welding materials. It adds other alloying elements such as Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si, V, Ni, Ti, B, etc based on the carbon which not only affects the formation of hardening phase in the surfacing layer but also affects the properties of the body structure. The biggest advantage of iron-based hardfacing materials is its lower cost. Due to the carbon content, alloy content and cooling speed, the structure of the surfacing layer can be pearlite, martensite, austenite and carbide, etc.
1.Pearlitic steel surfacing material. This alloy has good weldability, strong impact resistance but low hardness. It is mainly used for repairing mechanical parts of elephant shafts.
2. Austenitic steel surfacing material. Austenite has high impact toughness, good corrosion resistance and heat resistance. It is generally used to repair parts with intermetallic and abrasive wear under severe impact loads such as mine trucks and railway turnouts.
3. Martensitic steel surfacing material. The hardness, yield strength and wear resistance of Martensite building-up welding layer are higher and it can withstand medium impact strength, but its impact resistance is worse than that of pearlite steel and austenitic steel layer. Mainly used for repairing intermetallic wear parts, such as gears, tractor chassis, etc.
4. Alloy cast iron bead welding material. This kind of welding layer has high abrasive wear resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, good oxidation resistance but mild impact resistance and easy to crack when building up welding. It is mainly used for bead welding of agricultural machinery, mining equipment and other parts.

Cobalt-based alloys
Cobalt-based bead welding metals, also known as Stellite alloys, mainly refer to cobalt-chromium-tungsten alloys, which can maintain high strength and hardness at about 650 C and have excellent corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Among these kinds of bead welding metals, cobalt-based alloys have the best comprehensive properties and are mainly used for surfacing parts at high temperature.

Nickel-based alloy 
Nickel-based alloys are the most widely used for hardfacing and it has excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance, heat resistance and high-temperature oxidation resistance. They are usually used in corrosive media or high-temperature environments where low-stress wear occurs. Nickel-based alloys containing intermetallics such as Hastelloy C-22, are more suitable for tungsten gas shielded arc surfacing or plasma arc surfacing and used to surfacing the sealing surface of valves working in severely corrosive media. Nickel-based alloys containing carbides are cheaper than cobalt-based alloys and are ideal substitutes for cobalt-based surfacing metals.

Copper-based alloys
Copper-based bead welding metals are characterized for their excellent corrosion resistance, cavitation resistance and intermetallic wear resistance. They can be hardfaced on iron-based materials to make bimetallic parts and repairing worn parts. However, its ve poor sulfide corrosion resistance and high temperature creep resistance made it not easy to weld and are only suitable for environments below 200℃. This kind of bead welding metal is mainly used for welding of bearing bush, sealing surface of the low-pressure valve, etc.

Tungsten carbide alloys
Tungsten carbide hardfacing alloy wire is famous for its high hardness, wear resistance, strength and high forward elastic modulus. It has the highest wear resistance among all surfacing alloys and has become irreplaceable composite surfacing alloys for workpieces or surfaces under severe abrasive wear and gas-particle wear. It is widely used in oil drilling, metallurgical mining and coal mining, civil construction, building materials, sugar, power generation, agricultural machinery and other industries

Copper Grade Comparison Of Different Standands

There are more than 450 copper and copper alloys grades, each with a unique combination of properties to suit many applications, manufacturing processes and environments such as Brass (copper-zinc alloys), Bronze alloys, Copper-nickel alloys, Nickel-nickel-zinc alloys and Beryllium copper alloys. Every country has standards of their own or general for the copper and copper alloys grades according to the chemical element contents. Here we collected a grade comparison list for copper and its alloys in Europe, American, Germany, Japan and China for your reference.

CopperAmericanASTMChineseGBInternationalISOJapanJISGermanDINEuroEU
High

Copper

Alloys

C17200QBe2CuBe2C1720CuBe2CuBe2
C17200QBe1.9-0.1CuBe2C1720CuBe2CuBe2
C17000QBe1.7CuBe1.7CuBe1.7
C17500QBe0.6-2.5CuCo2BeCuCo2Be
C17510QBe0.4-1.8CuNi2BeCuNi2Be
C18200QCr0.5
C16200QCd1CuCd1
C14500QTe0.5CuTePCuTeP
Yellow

Brasses

(C21000-

28999)

C21000H96CuZn5C2100CuZn5CuZn5
C22000H90CuZn10C2200CuZn10CuZn10
C23000H85CuZn15C2300CuZn15CuZn15
C24000H80CuZn20C2400CuZn20CuZn20
C26000H70CuZn30C2600CuZn30CuZn30
C26000H68CuZn30C2600CuZn30CuZn30
C26130H70ACuZn30As
C26130H68ACuZn30As
C27000H65CuZn35C2680CuZn33CuZn33
C27200H63CuZn37C2700CuZn36CuZn36
C27400H32CuZn40C2720CuZn37CuZn37
C28000H59CuZn40C2800CuZn40CuZn40
Leaded

Brasses

(C30000-C39999)

C33000HPb66-0.5CuZn32Pb1
C35600HPb63-3CuZn34Pb2C3560CuZn36Pb1.5CuZn35Pb2
C37100HPb62-0.8CuZn37Pb1C3710CuZn39Pb0.5CuZn37Pb1
C36000HPb62-3CuZn36Pb3C3601CuZn36Pb3CuZn36Pb3
C35300HPb62-2CuZn37Pb2C3713CuZn38Pb1.5CuZn37Pb2
C37100HPb61-1CuZn39Pb1C3710CuZn39Pb0.5CuZn39Pb1
C37700HPb60-2CuZn38Pb2C3771CuZn39Pb2CuZn38Pb2
C37710HPb59-3CuZn39Pb3C3561CuZn39Pb3CuZn39Pb3
C37000HPb59-1CuZn39Pb1C3710CuZn40Pb2CuZn39Pb1
Tin Brasses

(C40000-C49999)

C41100HSn90-1
C44300HSn70-1CuZn28Sn1
C46200HSn62-1C4621CuZn38Sn1CuZn39Sn1
C46400HSn60-1C4640CuZn38Sn1CuZn39Sn1
P-Bronzes

(C5000-C52999)

C50500QSn1.5-0.2CuSn2
C51100QSn4-0.3CuSn4C5101CuSn4CuSn4
C52100QSn8-0.3CuSn8C5212CuSn8CuSn8
Al-Bronzes

(C60800-C64699)

C60800QAl5CuAl5C5102CuAl5As
C61000QAl7CuAl7CuAl8
C61900QAl9-4CuAl10Fe3C6161CuAl8Fe3CuAl8Fe3
C63010QAl9-5-1-1CuAl10Ni5Fe4C6280CuAl10Ni5Fe4CuAl10Ni5Fe4
C62300QAl10-3-1.5CuAl10Fe3C6161CuAl10Fe3Mn2
C63000QAl10-4-4CuAl9Fe4Ni4C6301CuAl10Ni5Fe4CuAl10Ni5Fe4
C63280QAl10-5-5CuAl9Fe4Ni4C6301CuAl10Ni5Fe4CuAl10Ni5Fe4
C63020QAl11-6-6CuAl10Ni5Fe4C6301CuAl11Ni6Fe5
C65600HSi80-3
C68700HAl77-2CuZn20Al2CuZn20Al2
Copper Nickel Alloy (C70000-C73499)C70400B5
C71000B19C7100
C71300B25CuNi25CuNi25CuNi25
C71500B30CuNi30Mn1FeC7150CuNi30Mn1FeCuNi30Mn1Fe
C70400BFe5-1.5-0.5
C70600BFe10-1-1CuNi10Fe1MnC7060CuNi10Fe1MnCuNi10Fe1Mn
C71500BFe30-1-1CuNi30Mn1FeC7150CuNi30Mn1FeCuNi30Mn1Fe
Nickel Silvers

(C73500-C79999)

C75200BZn18-18CuNi18Zn20C7521CuNi18Zn20
C77000BZn18-26CuNi18Zn27C7701CuNi18Zn27CuNi18Zn27
C75400BZn15-20CuNi15Zn21C7541CuNi12Zn24CuNi12Zn24
C79000BZn15-21-1.8CuNi18Zn19Pb1C7941CuNi18Zn19Pb1
C79200BZn15-24-1.5CuNi10Zn28Pb1CuNi12Zn30Pb1CuNi12Zn25Pb1

LKALLOY is an industry-leading manufacturer and supplier of beryllium copper, copper nickel, and a wide variety of mixed copper alloys. These alloy grades are among the most important and widely used copper alloys due to the impressive range of attributes that can be attained.

Processing Properties Of Metal Materials

The processing property of metal refers to the possibility or difficulty of obtaining qualified products in the cold or hot manufacturing process of mechanical parts, that is, the ability of materials to adapt to the practical production process requirements. Different processing conditions lead to different processing methods and product properties, such as casting, forging, deep drawing, bending, cutting, weldability, hardenability, etc. Process performance is often determined by a combination of complex factors (physical, chemical, mechanical ans so on).

 

  1. Castability

The ability of metal materials to obtain qualified workpieces by casting which measured by fluidity, shrinkage and segregation. Fluidity is the ability of liquid metal to fill a mold. Shrinkage refers to the degree of volume shrinkage during solidification and segregation refers to the inhomogeneity of chemical composition and structure in metal due to the difference of crystallization sequence in the process of metal cooling and solidification.

  1. Forgeability

It refers to the metal material can change the shape without crack performance in the pressure processing, that is the capacity, in the hot or cold environment, metal can be hammer forging, rolling, stretching, extrusion and other processing. Malleability is mainly related to the chemical composition of metal materials.

  1. Machinability

Machinability refers to the difficulty to become qualified workpieces in the cutting process. Machinability is often measured by the surface roughness, the allowable cutting speed and the abration of tool. This is not only related to the chemical composition and mechanical properties itself, but also related to the cutting process (like tool geometry, durability, cutting speed and feed quantity, etc.). Although there are many factors affecting the cutting performance, but the most important is the nature of the metal itself, especially the hardness, when the metal hardness of HB150~230, the best cutting performance.

  1. Weldability

Weldability refers to the adaptability of metal materials to welding processing, that’s the performance of obtaining qualified welded joints under specified welding conditions. It related to metal welding defect sensitivity and the performance welding joints to meet the use requirements under a certain welding process conditions.

  1. Heat treatment

Metal heat treatment is to heat the metal workpiece to the appropriate temperature for a certain time and then cooling at different speeds in different media, by changing the surface or internal microstructure of metal materials to control its performance of a process. Heat treatment mainly includes annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, tempering, chemical heat treatment, solid solution treatment, precipitation hardening (precipitation strengthening), aging treatment and so on. The heat treatment performance of steel mainly considers its hardenability(quenching can get higher hardness and smooth surface), containing manganese, chromium, nickel and other elements of alloy steel hardenability is better while carbon steel hardenability is poor. The heat treatment requirement of aluminum alloy is strict and only several kinds of Copper alloy can be strengthened by melting heat treatment.

 

What’s the spherical titanium powder industrial application?

Spherical titanium powders particular are silver-gray irregular metal powder in morphology and can also be magnetically screened or acid washed to remove any ferromagnetic contamination. These powders are characterized by its high strength, high corrosion resistance, widely used in a wide range of today’s most demanding markets such as aviation industry, aerospace industry, medical industry and ordinary industry. Do you know the industrial application of spherical titanium powder? Follow us to continue to read on!

 

Powder Metallurgy

Powder metallurgy, as a kind of advanced technology of material processing, plays an important role in the field of titanium industry. The titanium powder metallurgy molding technology can be used to directly produce finished products or parts close to the size of finished products. This technology has the characteristics of reducing the consumption of raw materials, shortening the processing cycle, and saving 20% ~ 50% of the cost compared with the conventional process, especially in the automobile industry, near net forming technology of titanium powder metallurgy is important. In Japan, automobile powder metallurgy parts are widely used in engines and transmissions the box, including connecting rod, seat, valve, pulley, synchronizer gear hub, synchronous ring and other complex and demanding key parts. Metal powder injection molding (MIM) is a rapidly developed near net powder metallurgy technology, which can produce high quality, high precision and complex parts. At present more and more titanium injection molding products have been developed and applied.

Laser Molding

Laser forming combines laser, CAD/CAM technology and powder materials, can be used directly with spherical titanium powder to produce complex final parts which performance between casting and forging pieces, and cost reduction of 15% to 30%, delivery time shortened by 50% to 75%. Re-searchers at aeromet company in American use a laser molding process to process titanium alloy powder into precision parts, which reduces the waste by 80% compared with the traditional casting process, and greatly shortens the production time. In addition, the use of laser molding technology to prepare titanium porous and dense biomedical materials can save time and materials, achieve customized processing, to meet the personalized needs of medical materials.

Thermal Spraying

Thermal spraying titanium layer technology is developed with the appearance of modern aviation and aerospace technology. At present, the commonly used methods of making titanium and titanium alloy coating include arc spraying, low-pressure plasma spraying, cold spraying, temperature spraying and other surface spraying technologies. Thermal spraying is mainly used to repair the workpiece defect parts, as well as high-temperature resistance, wear resistance and other parts of the protection and functional coating manufacturing. This process can reduce the production cost and make the surface of the workpiece obtain the required size and special properties, which not only solves the problem of titanium processing difficulties but also reduces the production cost by saving materials.

 

Titanium has good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, titanium coating made of titanium powder has become a research hotspot in the coating industry. Titanium coating is widely used in food storage, petrochemical industry, ocean ships and other fields. The titanium coating mixed with nano – spherical titanium powder has excellent antistatic and antifouling properties. With the development of the application of spherical titanium powders, the demand for high purity, low cost and stable spherical titanium powders increase rapidly.