What is the use of vanadium in steel?

Vanadium(V) has been widely used in metallurgy, chemistry, aerospace industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields due to its characteristics of vanadium added in steel can improve the strength, toughness and plasticity of steel, improve the hardness,  abrasion resistance in steel products, among which the metallurgical industry accounts for almost one third of its consumption. At present, V has been added in high-strength hot-rolled ribbed steel, high-carbon low-alloy steel, spring steel, bearing steel, mold steel, high-speed steel, Martensite heat-resistant steel and other steel as an important alloying element to improve the performance of steel. In the last article, we introduce the effect of V in steel, here we will continue the use of vanadium in steel, if interested, please read on!

For high carbon and low alloy, V is mainly used to refine grain, improve the strength, yield ratio and low-temperature toughness after normalizing, and improve the welding performance of steel. V will reduce the hardenability of steel in general heat treatment conditions, usually added with one or two kinds of alloy elements like manganese, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. High strength low alloy steel contains 0.04% ~ 0.12% V, and special steel can up to 0.16% ~ 0.25%.

Vanadium is an indispensable alloy element in high-speed tool steel(HSS). It can prevent grain growth, improve red hardness and cutting ability of steel, increase wear resistance and prolong service life in high-speed tool steel containing tungsten. Almost all-alloy mold steel like cold work tool steel, hot work tool steel, plastic mold steel contains 1% ~ 3% vanadium, a few special requirements can be up to 5%. Vanadium is the main secondary hardening element that is commonly used hot mold steel (H13) and cold mold steel (D2). The content of V in mold steel is usually 0.1% ~ 5%, the United States developed A11 cold tool steel of which vanadium content up to 9.75%. In Germany, V consumption in tool steel and high-speed steel accounts for about 1/3 of the total V consumption. These steel products made by HSS can reach to 60HRC hardness, has been widely used surgical instruments and tools and various cutting tools: drills, taps, milling cutters, tool bits, gear cutters, saw blades, planer and jointer blades, router bits; sharp tools like files, chisels, hand plane blades, knives

In addition, V has a place in heat resistant steel, stainless steel, bearing steel and spring steel, Nickel-based alloys. Vanadium addition of 0.15% ~ 0.40% can form highly dispersed carbide and nitrite particles in heat-resistant steel, which polymerizes and grows very slowly at a high temperature, which can improve the thermal strength and creep resistance of heat-resistant steel and be applied in power station systems such as T91 and P92 steel.

For spring steel and bearing steel, V can improve the elastic limit, strength and yield ratio, reduce the decarburization sensitivity of the steel during heat treatment, thereby improving the metallurgical and surface quality of the steel. Vanadium has also been used in Hastelloy corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, Hastelloy B alloy contains V≤0.60%, Hastelloy C22, Hastelloy C 276 alloy ≤0.35%, Hastelloy N ≤0.50% V, Hastelloy W ≤0.60% V.